How Nokia Fell from Grace
By failing to understand changes in its market and remaining geographically removed, the mobile-phone maker ceded control to Apple and others.
What was the most successful European company of the 1990s? Easy: Nokia. The Finnish mobile-phone manufacturer captured the emerging market for mobile phones and built the industry's most powerful brand. Its handsets virtually defined the industry from the time it launched its first GSM phone, the 1011, in 1992. From 1996 to 2001 its revenues increased almost fivefold, and by 1998 it was the world's biggest mobile manufacturer.